As we enter the busiest shopping period of the year, both offline and online retailers and consumers are facing risks to the security of their payment card data.
Formjacking has surged in 2018—with Symantec blocking almost 700,000 formjacking attempts from mid-September to mid-November alone. This surge in formjacking is one of the big stories of 2018—with attackers like Magecart using supply chain attacks and other tactics to inject malicious scripts into websites to steal payment card information.
There have also been attacks on point-of-sale (PoS) systems in bricks-and-mortar stores this year, though none so far that compare to the mega breaches of earlier this decade, which saw tens of millions of credit cards compromised in a single breach.
Point of sale, point of weakness
According to recent research from Symantec’s Deepsight Managed Adversary and Threat Intelligence (MATI) team (published in the MATI report How Cyber Criminals Monetize Unauthorized PoS System Access And Stolen Card Data – 01 Nov 2018), on dark net marketplaces threat actors are advertising access to PoS systems at prices ranging from $12 for administrative access to one PoS machine, to $60,000 for access to a large corporate network containing thousands of PoS servers and terminals. Meanwhile, depending on its quality, payment card data on the dark web retails for between $1 and $175 per card.
The techniques used by PoS scammers remain straightforward and have not evolved greatly in the last number of years, with scammers still using “RAM-scraping” malware to steal payment card details. This RAM-scraping malware works because of how data generally travels around retailers’ systems.
- Retailers generally use network-level encryption within their internal networks to protect data as it travels from one system to another.
- However, payment card numbers are not encrypted in the systems themselves and can still be found within the memory of the PoS system and other computer systems responsible for processing or passing on the data.
- This weakness allows attackers to use RAM-scraping malware to extract this data from memory while the data is being processed inside the terminal rather than when the data is travelling through the network.
PoS cyber crime groups
Two high-profile actors in the PoS malware space are FIN7 and FIN6. FIN7 is a well-known group that is reported to have stolen more than $1 billion from companies around the world. FIN7 uses sophisticated spear-phishing emails to convince targets to download an attachment that then infects their company network with malware. The malware used by FIN7 is most commonly a tailored version of the Carbanak malware, which has been used in multiple attacks on banks. Companies compromised by FIN7 include well-known brands like Chipotle, Chilli’s, and Arby’s, with the group thought to have compromised thousands of business locations and to have stolen millions of credit card numbers.
FIN6 was first spotted in 2016 when it used the Grabnew backdoor and the FrameworkPOS malware to steal the details of more than 10 million credit cards. The group was also active in 2018, and was seen exploiting living off the land tools such as Windows Management Instrumentation Command (WMIC) and the Metasploit framework to execute PowerShell commands.
Both groups are believed to have made many millions of dollars selling the card details they steal on dark web marketplaces—with the Joker’s Stash marketplace appearing to be where most of these transactions take place.
However, a few factors have emerged in recent times that may impact the environment around PoS attacks, and the activity of these groups:
- Three members of FIN7 arrested: In August this year, the U.S. Department of Justice issued indictments against three Ukrainian nationals it alleged were members of FIN7: Dmytro Fedorov, Fedir Hladyr, and Andrii Kopakov. The three men reportedly had high-profile roles in FIN7: Hladyr as its systems administrator, and Fedorov and Kopakov as supervisors to groups of hackers. While FIN7 activity has continued to operate since these arrests, they could have an impact on the group’s activity going forward.
- Increased adoption of chip and chip-and-PIN: The increased adoption of chip in the U.S., and chip-and-PIN technologies globally, by payment card issuers has reduced the availability of “usable” payment card information in the criminal marketplace. If a threat actor compromises a PoS system that processes 50 percent cards that use chip-and-PIN then only 50 percent of the cards are usable, or saleable, for them. As chip-and-PIN technology becomes more commonplace around the world and reduces the number of PoS systems capable of producing card data that actors can monetize, Symantec’s MATI experts believe the price of unauthorized PoS access will decline, while usable stolen payment card information will increase in value due to its scarcity.
PoS attacks in 2018
One new actor we have seen engaged in malicious activity on PoS machines in 2018 is a group we have dubbed Fleahopper. Fleahopper has been active since at least July 2017. It is a financially motivated group that appears to be monetizing its victims by stealing information from infected machines running PoS software.
In the latter half of 2018, Fleahopper has been observed using the Necurs botnet to infect victims. It does this in two ways: through Necurs bots and through spam email, likely originating from the Necurs botnet. Symantec has observed Fleahopper delivering malware directly through Necurs bots, where the bots drop malware from Fleahopper onto machines already infected by Necurs. Machines that are not infected with Necurs may still be infected by Fleahopper through spam that comes from the Necurs botnet.
Spam emails that deliver malware from Fleahopper have been observed with malicious Microsoft .pub files attached. These .pub files download an installer for the malware used by Fleahopper, Trojan.FlawedAmmyy.
The Trojan.FlawedAmmyy RAT is a modified version of the publicly available remote access tool Ammyy Admin (Remacc.Ammyy). Although Trojan.FlawedAmmyy is not believed to be exclusive to Fleahopper, the group has been observed using Trojan.FlawedAmmyy to deliver its tools.
Once they’ve compromised an organization, Fleahopper has been observed dropping a number of files onto machines running POS software. Fleahopper installs a modified legitimate Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) file onto infected machines running POS software. This gives Fleahopper remote desktop access to the infected machine that is separate from access through malware. Symantec has observed Fleahopper using this access.
Symantec has observed Fleahopper activity on machines in grocery stores, furniture stores, restaurants and a store selling men’s clothing. The group’s activity appears to be spread around the globe, with some activity seen targeting businesses based in the U.S. and the U.K. Some of the other PoS malware that has been seen used by various groups in the wild in 2018 includes: RtPOS, Prilex, LusyPOS, LockPOS, GratefulPOS, and FindPOS.
Publicly reported attacks
There have been several publicly reported attacks on PoS systems in 2018:
- RMH Franchise Holdings, an Applebee’s franchisee
- Canadian restaurant chain Tim Horton’s
- S. restaurant chain Chili’s
- Saks Fifth Avenue, Saks Off 5th, and Lord & Taylor (these stores have the same parent organization: Hudson Bay Company)
The compromise of Hudson’s Bay Company’s stores and Chili’s has been linked to FIN7. While these were significant compromises—the details of at least 5 million cards were compromised when the Hudson’s Bay Company stores were targeted—there have been no reports so far of PoS attacks this year affecting tens of millions of consumers.
This relative drop in activity in the PoS space compared to previous years could be down to the reasons mentioned above—the increased adoption of chip-and-PIN globally and upset in the FIN7 group. However, it may also indicate that attackers are looking at other ways to make money and get their hands on payment card details—for example, by turning to formjacking.
We first published research on formjacking at the end of September 2018, after a spate of high-profile attacks by the Magecart attack group. Among Magecart’s targets were Ticketmaster UK, British Airways, Feedify, and Newegg. One of its more recent targets was British electronics kit retailer Kitronik.
In a two-month period, from mid-September to mid-November, Symantec blocked almost 700,000 formjacking attempts—with a clear upward trend visible as we approach the holiday shopping season.
Much as we reported in September, these formjacking attempts target a wide range of e-commerce websites, including a fashion retailer in Southeast Asia, and another in Australia, a U.S. website selling jewelry, and another U.S. store specializing in outdoor gear and equipment. Suppliers of equipment for dentists, and online stores selling gardening equipment, were also among those targeted. These formjacking attempts continue to target a wide range of stores—ranging from small to large retailers in various countries around the world.
Dutch security researcher Willem de Groot has discovered since then that Magecart is also exploiting unpatched vulnerabilities in 21 Magento extensions used by online stores to gain access to websites. Magento is an open-source e-commerce platform. Magecart is using a series of URL paths to probe Magento stores in the wild for the vulnerable extensions, and injecting its malicious code into vulnerable websites.
As we approach the holiday shopping season, it is likely that we will see a ramping up of activity from actors out to steal consumers’ payment card details—both online and in retail stores worldwide.
Best Practices for Retailers
Victims may not realize they are victims of formjacking as generally their websites continue to operate as normal, and attackers like Magecart are sophisticated and stealthy and take steps to avoid detection.
Website owners should be aware of the dangers of software supply chain attacks, as these have been used as the infection vector in some of these formjacking attacks. Software supply chain attacks can be difficult to guard against, but there are some steps that website owners can take:
- Test new updates, even seemingly legitimate ones, in small test environments or sandboxes first, to detect any suspicious behavior.
- Behavior monitoring of all activity on a system can also help identify any unwanted patterns and allow you to block a suspicious application before any damage can be done.
Producers of software packages should ensure that they are able to detect unwanted changes in the software update process and on their website.
Website owners can also use content security policies with Subresource Integrity tags (SRI) to lock down any integrated third-party script.
Point of Sale
- Install and maintain a firewall to facilitate network segmentation.
- Change default system passwords and other security parameters.
- Encrypt transmission of cardholder data across open, public networks.
- Use and regularly update security software.
- Use strong authentication including two-factor authentication for remote systems.
- Test security systems, perform penetration testing, and implement a vulnerability management program.
- Maintain security policies and implement regular training for all personnel.
- Implement chip-and-PIN technology in your business.
- Implement system integrity and monitoring software to leverage features such as system lockdown, application control, or whitelisting.
Best Practices for Consumers
- Monitor your credit card bills so you will spot any suspicious transactions. You could even consider hiring the services of a credit monitoring company.
- Only shop from well-known, secure websites and stores that are more likely to have good security measures in place. However, even well-known stores fall victim to cyber criminals, so while this may reduce your risk of exposure it doesn’t eliminate it.
Watch Out for These Scams Targeting Amazon Customers
Written by Amer Owaida, Security Writer at ESET
Amazon is the largest online marketplace in the world boasting over US$386 billion in revenue in 2020 with 200 million subscribers to its Amazon Prime service just in the United States. And that’s just a fraction of the whole customer base that it serves around the globe year-round. Of course, such a huge customer pool attracts cybercriminals who are looking to make a bank by scamming unsuspecting victims with a variety of tricks that they have in their arsenal of scammery.
Fake order phishing email
As with any major service, Amazon is no stranger to being spoofed or impersonated by enterprising fraudsters who are looking to dupe people out of their personal information or to access credentials to their accounts. The emails you may receive can take on various forms, however, they usually impersonate a common Amazon dispatch email, that regular customers have encountered many times over. For example, you might receive one confirming a purchase that you didn’t make and tries to trick you into clicking on various links that look like contact information to Amazon’s customer service.
These links can then redirect to something looking like the official Amazon login page, however, when you try to sign in you will have divulged your credentials to the scammer. Alternatively, by clicking on the link or attachment in the email you may download a malicious payload to your device that will attempt to download keylogging software that will try to harvest your credentials to any services you use.
Generally speaking, unless the fraudster behind the scam did an immaculate job with the counterfeit email there are several warning signs that will give it away as an attempt at phishing. If the email contains, typos, grammar mistakes, or an attachment it is most assuredly a scam. When checking out a link that you’ve received in an email, by hovering your cursor over it, check whether the address is something.amazon.com where something is one of many valid Amazon subdomains – for example, pay.amazon.com or www.amazon.com. If you suspect that you’re being phished you should contact Amazon directly, since it takes these issues seriously.
Gift card scams
Gift card fraud is another perennial problem that you can encounter. The con-artists may utilize different strategies to dupe their victims, however, the ultimate goal remains the same – trick them into purchasing and sending Amazon gift cards. Popular tactics usually include evoking a sense of urgency or pressure in order to make victims act quickly rather than give deep thought to the contents of the message or phone call.
Victims may receive unsolicited email messages or phone calls about a pressing issue involving their social security numbers or benefits and to resolve it they’ll have to pay a penalty using gift cards. Alternatively, victims may be told that a family member is in trouble and needs financial help. There are multiple scenarios at play where fraudsters can also impersonate Amazon itself, claim to be someone from the management of the victim’s employer, you name it.
However, fortunately, most of these scams can be uncovered quite easily if you keep a cool head. Government officials will never ask you to pay a fine or penalty with a gift card, so you can be 100% sure that if you get such a request it’s a scam. As for the rest of the scenarios, to verify the claims you just need to call your family member to see if they’re in trouble or the person from your company that requested the gift cards. And of course, it goes without saying that you should contact all of the aforementioned people or institutions through the verified official channels.
Payment scams come in many shapes and sizes, and while the form may differ, in the end, the scammers behind them are after only one thing – the contents of your bank account. There are multiple ways that this can occur. One tactic that is often utilized is trying to convince you to pay outside Amazon’s secure platform. The crooks will try to lure you in various ways by offering a discounted price, for example, however, if you relent, the most probable outcome is that you’ll both lose your money and won’t get the product.
And additionally, you won’t be able to lodge a complaint with Amazon since you paid the fraudulent charges outside the confines of their platform. Other flavors of payment scams to watch out for include paying to claim a prize that you’ve supposedly won or to a seller whose identity you can’t verify, and avoid offers that seem too good to be true or that you find suspicious.
The obvious advice, in this case, is to stick to Amazon’s platform for all orders and payments. Even the company itself warns against sending money outside the confines of its platform: “Don’t send money (by cash, wire transfer, Western Union, PayPal, MoneyGram, or other means, including by Amazon Payments) to a seller who claims that Amazon or Amazon Payments will guarantee the transaction, refund your funds if you’re not satisfied with the purchase, or hold your funds in escrow.”
Dodgy phone calls
Sometimes scammers will resort to more “analog” means to try and hoodwink their victims – fake support calls. The content of the calls might vary, however, they often sound like a pre-recorded message impersonating Amazon claiming it has registered something wrong with your account, something that would pique your interest – a fishy purchase, lost package, etc.
According to a warning issued by the United States Federal Trade Commission, the message will then either inform you to press 1 to speak to a customer support agent or give you a number to call back. If you engage in conversation, the scammers will most likely try to wheedle sensitive data out of you like your personal information or your payment data.
The most sensible thing to do, before going into full-blown panic mode, is to check if there is anything suspicious going on by contacting Amazon through the direct channels listed on the support section of their website. The company does acknowledge that in some cases it may make outbound calls but it will never ask customers to reveal any sensitive personal information in order to verify their identity.
When it comes to online shopping and its related activities the saying “trust but verify” remains as true as ever. To sum it up, most of the scams can be avoided if you remain vigilant, curious, and keep your wits about you. If you receive any unsolicited emails be extra careful to verify their provenance and never divulge personal sensitive information to anyone claiming to be a “customer support representative or agent”.
Create a Ring of Security Around Your Home
With an app and a couple of gadgets, technology can provide peace of mind in the toughest of times – whether you’re at home or away, says Mohammad Meraj Hoda, vice president of Business Development – Middle East & Africa at Ring
Over the last year, we have learned that there’s no such thing as a predictable routine. Even as UAE authorities do their utmost to prevent the spread of the coronavirus, once-mundane everyday schedules can easily be disrupted by abrupt school closures, sudden quarantines or even an endless procession of deliveries of all kinds. At times when it can all get a bit too much, an extra layer of security can offer peace of mind.
But when you can’t bring in new household help with visa and travel restrictions, technology can do your bidding instead. Indeed, technology is now so far advanced that with a couple of installs and a few quick tweaks, you can protect your home inside and out. With a video doorbell, indoor cameras around the house, and an app, you can create a ring of security around your home within a few minutes.
When you choose a single brand of products, such as Ring, the appliances can easily work together, and best of all, everything can be monitored from your smartphone – even if you happen to be elsewhere physically. As UAE residents have become more alert to visitors and the risks accompanying them, convenience and safety are more important than ever. This is where Ring’s bouquet of products can help.
Video Doorbells Help Everyone
Since they were first created in 2013, video doorbells have proved their worth repeatedly in many different situations around the world. From a bear trying to open a car door to meteors flying through the skies, they have captured a number of untoward and unwanted visitors around the world. Products such as the Ring Video Doorbell 3 are activated by motion around your front door and begin recording events within their line of sight. Because Ring video doorbells connect to the internet via your home Wi-Fi system, this video feed can be set to be livestreamed straight to your phone, or you can access it later.
Even if you are at home, there is no need to go to the door. You can see who your visitors are from your smartphone. With the Ring Video Doorbell 3, you simply tap on the alert to check who’s at the door and even communicate with them. Even if you are at home, you can safely keep your distance from visitors, and if necessary, ask them to leave packages at your door.
Indoor Cameras Offer Peace of Mind
Meanwhile, for family-focused people who are away in the office or at an event outside the home (perhaps even in another emirate!), an indoor camera provides the assurance that no untoward incidents have taken place at home. Perhaps you want to chat with those who are at home, verify if your teenage kids are getting to their homework, or if your cat has been playing up while you’re away. A quick check is easy with a compact indoor camera such as Ring’s new Indoor Cam, which slots unobtrusively into small spaces around the home.
This clever new device makes it easy to speak with older family members or see if school children have reached home. Between the indoor cameras and the outdoor doorbell camera, you can easily keep an eye on every corner of your home from anywhere. In addition, with Ring’s Protect Plan, it’s easy to add an extra layer of security to your home.
Although life has become more challenging on so many fronts, technology can help the stresses of living through these strange times. A little planning and a few moments’ work can go a long way to securing peace of mind for everyone at home.
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